Background of the Old Testament

  1. Extra-biblical texts relating to the Old Testament
    1. Mesopotamian texts
    2. The Monuments and the Old Testament by Ira M. Price (1900)
    3. The Cuneiform Inscriptions & the Old Testament (indexed by OT book)
    4. Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL)
    5. Alalakh – History of site | Excavation and bibliography
    6. Gilgamesh – photo | Eng. transl.
    7. Hammurapi Stele (Code of Hammurabi, c. 1790 BCE) – photo | Eng. transl.
    8. Israelite seal to Pedaiah – photo & transl.
    9. Merneptah stela
    10. Nuzi tablets– Nuzi exhibit at Semitic Museum of Harvard University | Index of texts
    11. Epic of Ishtar and Izdubar
    12. Annals of Assur-Nasir-Pal
    13. Clay cylinder of Nabopolassar (photo and commentary)
    14. Babylonian Chronicles (photo, Eng. transl. of excerpts, and commentary)
    15. Nabonidus stele (photo and commentary)
    16. Cyrus cylinder (photo, Eng. transl. and commentary)
    17. Monolith of Shalmaneser II (1031-1019 BCE, Eng. transl.) (Eng. transl.)
    18. Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (858-824 BCE) (photo, Eng. transl., and commentary)
    19. Third campaign of Sennacherib (701 BCE, Eng. transl. of the Taylor Cylinder) (Eng. transl.)
    20. Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar II (Eng. transl., and commentary)
    21. Inscription of Tiglath Pileser I (Eng. transl., and commentary)
    22. Sculptures & Inscription of Darius the Great on rock of Behistun (Persia) [TOP]
    23. Herodotus — The Histories (covering roughly 700–475 BCE) | Greek text (you will have to configure the display) | English text (scholarly version, with commentaries & notes) | English text only (George Rawlinson translation) 
    24. Xenophon — Anabasis (covering 379–371 BCE) | Greek text (you will have to configure the display) | English text only
  2. Periods of Old Testament History
    1. Pre-flood (Gen. 1-5)
    2. Post-flood (Gen. 6-11)
    3. Patriarchs (Gen. 12-46)
    4. Egyptian bondage (Gen. 46-Exod. 13)
    5. Wilderness wanderings (Exod. 14 – Josh. 3)
    6. Conquest of Canaan (Josh. 4-24)
    7. Judges (Judg. 11 Sam. 9)
    8. United kingdom (1 Sam. 101 Kings 11; 1 Chron. 12 Chron. 9)
    9. Divided kingdom (1 Kings 122 Kings 17; 2 Chron. 10 – 31)
    10. Judah alone (2 Kings 18 – 25; 2 Chron. 32 – 36)
    11. Babylonian exile (Jer. 39 – 52)
    12. Post-exile (Ezra, Neh., Esther)
    13. After close of OT [TOP]

  3. Archaeological periods
    1. Neolithic (8000-4300 BCE)
      1. N-Pre-pottery (8000-6000 BCE)
      2. N-Pottery (6000-4300 BCE)
    2. Chalcolithic (4300-3300 BCE)
    3. Early Bronze (3300-2100 BCE)>/li>
      1. EB-I (3300-2900 BCE)
      2. EB-II (2900-2600 BCE)
      3. EB-III (2600-2300 BCE)
      4. EB-IV (2300-2100 BCE) [TOP]
    4. Middle Bronze (2100-1550 BCE)
      1. MB-I (2100-1900 BCE)
      2. MB-IIA (1900-1700 BCE)
      3. MB-IIB (1700-1600 BCE)
      4. MB-IIC (1600-1550 BCE)
    5. Late Bronze (1550-1200 BCE)
      1. LB-I (1550-1400 BCE)
      2. LB-IIA (1400-1300 BCE)
      3. LB-IIB (1300-1200 BCE)
    6. Iron I (1200-918 BCE)
      1. I-IA (1200-1150 BCE)
      2. I-IB (1150-1000 BCE)
      3. I-IC (1000-918 BCE)
    7. Iron II (918-586 BCE)
      1. I-IIA (918-800 BCE)
      2. I-IIB (800-586 BCE)
    8. Iron III (586-332 BCE) [TOP]
  4. Old Testament archaeological sites
    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N  O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
    1. Maps of archaeological sites relating to the Old Testament
    2. Historical Geography of the Holy Land by George A. Smith (1915)
    3. OT Archaeology
    4. General sites
    5. Acco (Ptolemais of Roman times)
    6. Achzib
    7. Ai – Et-Tell – photo gallery & links | Khirbet el-Maqatir (photo gallery) | “Locating Biblical Ai Correctly” by David Livingstone
    8. Aijalon
    9. Aphek (NT Antipatris)
    10. Arad | photo gallery & links | More photos | History, archaeology, photos
    11. Aroer
    12. Ashdod (NT Azotus) – History | Archaeology
    13. Ashkelon – Archaeology | Photo gallery & links | Tour of site
    14. Azekah
    15. Babylon – Excavations | artist’s conception of Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylon | Images, maps, architecture, etc.
    16. Beer-sheba | photo gallery & links
    17. Bethel
    18. Bethlehem (see NT arch.)
    19. Beth-shean (NT Scythopolis) | Excavations nearby
    20. Beth-shemesh (Khirbet Rumeila) | photo gallery & links
    21. Beth-zur
    22. Chinnereth
    23. Damascus | Photos | Tour of City and vicinity
    24. Dan – history | photo gallery & links
    25. Debir (Tel Rabud)
    26. Dor
    27. Dothan
    28. Dura-Europus synagogue
    29. Ebla (Tel Mardikh) – Intro. | Urban Landscape of Old Syrian Ebla (PDF, 21 pp)
    30. Eilat
    31. Ekron
    32. el-Farah
    33. Ein-gedi | Illustrated history | Excavation Report
    34. Gath (Tel es-Safi) – Intro. to Gath excavation | Gath Excavation Blog | “Goliath” inscription
    35. Gaza – Excavation of Byzantine monastery
    36. Gezer – Gezer calendar | Current excavation | photo gallery & links | Report on Macalister’s excavation – Vol. 1 | Vol. 2 | Vol. 3
    37. Gibeah (of Saul) (Tell el-Ful)
    38. Gibeon (el-Jib) – Photo gallery
    39. Gilgal | History
    40. Hammath (Ammathus)
    41. Haran (Later called Carrhae and now Harran, Turkey) – Bible Atlas from Space | Photo tour | Harran Stelae | “The Aramaeans of Haran” by E. G. H. Kraeling (from his Columbia Ph.D. diss., 1917)
    42. Hazor – Intro. | Excavation | photo gallery & links | Water system
    43. Hebron – Photo gallery (see Machpelah, Cave of)
    44. Heshbon (Hesban) – Andrews University excavations
    45. Iskander
    46. Jericho | photo gallery and links to other Jericho sites | Municipality of Jericho
    47. Jerusalem (see NT arch.)
      1. City of David (Flash tour)
      2. Jerusalem: Topography, Economics, and History from the Earliest Times to A.D. 70 by George Adam Smith (1909) **Caution: 23.68 Mb**
      3. City of David (area G)
      4. Warren’s Shaft
      5. Hezekiah’s tunnel | Siloam inscription  [TOP]
    48. Joppa
    49. Kadesh-barnea
    50. Kadesh
    51. Kedesh – The site | The excavation
    52. Kiriath-jearim
    53. Lachish | Lachish artifacts in British Museum | history of Lachish
    54. Lod (NT Lydda)
    55. Machpelah, Cave of
    56. Mahanaim
    57. Mampsis
    58. Mamre
    59. Mareshah
    60. Masada (“The Stronghold”) | photo gallery & links
    61. Medeba
    62. Megiddo | photo gallery and links | Megiddo Battle of Thutmosis III | Megiddo Expedition | Battles of Armageddon
    63. Mezad Hashavyahu
    64. Michmash
    65. Migdal
    66. Mizpah
    67. Nebo (Jebel Musa) – Photos | Excavation & more photos
    68. Nineveh – Discoveries at Nineveh by Austen Henry Layard | Another Nineveh site
    69. Persepolis
    70. Qasila – Archaeology of Qasila
    71. Qumran – The site | Intro. to Dead Sea Scrolls | A day at Qumran
    72. Rabbath-ammon (Philadelphia, modern Amman, Jordan) – History | Citadel inscription
    73. Rabbah (NT Philadelphia of the Decapolis, modern Amman, capital of Jordan)
    74. Ramah
    75. Rekem (see Petra of Hellenistic and Roman period)
    76. Rosh ha-Niqra
    77. Samaria (NT Sebaste) – Plan of Harvard excavation (1908-1910) | Harvard excavation, vol. 1 – text | Vol. 2 – plans and plates | Wikipedia article: “Samaria (ancient city)”
    78. Sharuhan (K. el-Ajjul)
    79. Shechem – Archaeology and history | photo gallery & links
    80. Shiloh – Archaeology | photo gallery and links
    81. esh-Shuna (Tell Asmar)
    82. Sidon
    83. Succoth
    84. Susa – Site and finds
    85. Timnah (Waddi Menelya)
    86. Tirzah (Aenon)
    87. Tyre
    88. Ugarit – Ugarit and Old Testament | Ras Shamra Project
    89. Ur – Intro. and treasures | Photos of artifacts
    90. Ziklag (T. esh-Sharia)
    91. Zippori (T. et-Tuyur, Sepphoris of Roman times) [TOP]