Extra-biblical Jewish literature
- Second temple period (c. 538 BCE
(included in Greek OT)
What are these writings?
Intro. to Apocrypha
- Psalm 151 | Intro.
- Wisdom of Solomon | Intro.
- Susanna | Intro.
- 1 Maccabees | Intro.
- 2 Maccabees | Intro.
- 3 Maccabees | Intro.
- 4 Maccabees | Intro.
(also known as Wisdom of Jesus ben Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus)
- Baruch | Intro.
- Tobit | Intro.
- Bel & the Dragon | Intro.
- Azariah | Intro.
- Epistle of Jeremiah
(sometimes included as Baruch, chapter 6)
- Prayer of Manasseh | Intro.
- 4 Ezra (also known as 2 Esdras)
- Judith | Intro.
- Additions to Book of Esther | Intro.
- 1 Esdras
(also known as 3 Esdras)
- Old Testament Pseudepigrapha
Best text: James H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha volume 1: Apocalyptic Literature & Testaments | volume 2: Expansions of the Old Testament, etc. | Older text: R. H. Charles, ed., Old Testament Apocrypha & Pseudepigrapha
(now available in paperback)
volume 1: Apocrypha | volume 2: Pseudepigrapha
- 1 Enoch (Ethiopic)
- 2 Enoch
(also known as Book of the Secrets of Enoch)
- 4 Baruch
(also known as Paraleipomena Jeremiou)
- Life of Adam & Eve Intro. | Transl. of Latin version | Transl. of Slavonic version | Transl. of Greek version
(also known as Apocalypse of Moses)
- Story of Ahikar | Intro.
- Apocalypse of Abraham | Intro.
- Apocalypse of Adam
(Gnostic) | Intro.
- Apocalypse of Moses
(fragment) | Intro.
- Joseph & Aseneth | Intro.
- Jubilees | Intro.
- Letter of Aristeas | Intro.
- Martyrdom of Isaiah | Intro.
- Psalms of Solomon | Greek text | Intro.
- Pseudo-Phocylides | Intro.
- Revelation of Esdras | Intro.
- Second Treatise of the Great Seth | Intro.
- Sibylline Oracles | Intro.
- Testament of Abraham | Intro.
- Testament of Job | Intro.
- Testament of Solomon | Intro.
- Testaments of the 12 Patriarchs | Introduction
- Testament of Reuben
- Testament of Simeon
- Testament of Levi
(concerning priesthood & arrogance)
- Testament of Judah
(concerning fortitude, love of money, & fornication)
- Testament of Issachar
- Testament of Zebulon
(concerning compassion & mercy)
- Testament of Dan
(concerning anger & lying)
- Testament of Naphtali
(concerning natural goodness)
- Testament of Gad
- Testament of Asher
(conerning the two faces of vice & virtue)
- Testament of Joseph
- Testament of Benjamin
(concerning a pure mind)
- Damascus Document
(discovered in Cairo in 1896) | Alternate site
- Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS)
- Basic Facts about the DSS
(one-page introduction by Dr. James Tabor)
- Index of DSS and the cave of origin for each
- Eng. transl. of texts
- Library of Congress synopsis
(photos and Eng. transl. of some of the manuscripts)
- The Great Isaiah Scroll
(photo of each page, with transl. and comments)
- Orion Center for the Study of the DSS and Associated Literature
(The best site for in-depth study of the DSS) [TOP]
- Philo of Alexandria
(Eng. transl. and various studies)
- Rabbinic literature (c. 100 BCE 500 CE)
- Jewish Encyclopedia
(on-line version of complete 12-volume compendium
- Chronological table of the tanna'itic and amoraic periods
- Tanna'itic period (10220 CE) . . .
- Mishnah (200 CE). . .
- Amoraic period (220500 CE)
- Tosefta (220230 CE)
- Jerusalem Talmud (400 CE)
- Babylonian Talmud (c. 427560
- Midrash (400500 CE)
- Kabbalah (Mystical interpretation)
- Haggadah (Legends about biblical characters)