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New Testament Background

INSCRIPTIONS ANCIENT HISTORIANS NON-LITERARY
WRITINGS
NT ARCHAEOLOGY NT COMMENTARIES ONLINE
  1. Inscriptions (Epigraphy)

    1. Index of Sources for Greek and Latin Epigraphy
    2. Acts of Augustus (Res Gestae Divi Augustus) Latin, Greek, & English in parallel columns
    3. Erastus inscription at Corinth – Photo and description | Discussion
    4. Gallio inscription at Delphi – Description | Significance | Photos
    5. Pontius Pilate inscription at Caesarea Maritima
    6. Secular Games of 17 BCE Latin text | English text
    7. Synagogue inscription at Corinth
    8. Temple balustrade warning in Jerusalem
  1. History
    1. Modern histories
      1. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon (1782, rev. 1845)  vol. 1 | vol. 2 | vol. 3 | vol. 4 | vol. 5 | vol. 6
      2. De Imperatoribus Romanis (On the Roman Emperors)
      3. Greek and Roman Cities of Western Turkey by Michael Greenhalgh
      4. Outlines of Roman History by William C. Morey (1901)
      5. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries by Rodolfo Lanciani (12th ed., 1898)
      6. The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia by William M. Ramsay (1904)
      7. A History of Roman Literature: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Marcus Aurelius by Charles Thomas Cruttwell (1877)
      8. Ancient Rome From the Earliest Times Down to 476 B.C. by Robert Pennell (1891) (4.6Mb)
      9. Jerusalem: Topography, Economics, and History from the Earliest Times to A.D. 70 by George Adam Smith (1909)
      10. A Smaller History of Greece from the earliest times to the Roman conquest by William Smith (1897)
      11. Private Life of the Romans (1903, 1932) by Harold Johnston, rev. by Mary Johnston
      12. Studies in the History and Art of the Eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire (1906) ed. by William M. Ramsay
      13. The Cities of St. Paul: Their Influence on His Life and Thought – The Cities of Eastern Asia Minor (1908) by William M. Ramsay
      14. The Church in the Roman Empire Before A.D. 170 (9th ed., 1909) by William M. Ramsay
      15. American Archaeologists in Turkey: Intellectual and Social Dimensions (1996)
      16. Archaeology in Turkey, 2004-2005
    2. Ancient histories
      1. Herodotus -- The Histories (covering roughly 700–475 BCE)
        1. Greek text (you will have to configure the display)
        2. English text (scholarly version, with commentaries & notes)
        3. English text (quick-reading version)
      2. Xenophon -- Anabasis (covering 379–371 BCE)
        1. Greek text (you will have to configure the display)
        2. English text
      3. Polybius
        1. The Histories or The Rise of the Roman Empire (in Greek and English, covers c. 220-146 BCE)
        2. Intro. to Polybius
      4. Josephus (37 - after 100 CE)
        1. Extant writings of Josephus (Whiston transl.)
        2. Greek text (with parallel Whiston translation):
      5. Geography of Strabo (c. 64 BCE - 24 CE) Greek text | English text
      6. Pausanias's Description of GreeceGreek text | English text  | biography of Pausanias (115-180 CE)
      7. Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE) History of Rome – Latin text | Eng. transl.
      8. Plutarch
        1. Alexander
        2. Pompey
        3. Caesar
        4. Brutus
        5. Antony
        6. Cicero
        7. Crassus
        8. Galba
        9. Otho
      9. Suetonius (c. A.D. 69 - after 122)   The Twelve Caesars
        1. Julius Caesar  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        2. Augustus (Octavian)  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        3. Tiberius  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        4. Gaius (Caligula)  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        5. Claudius  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        6. Nero  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        7. Galba  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        8. Otho  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        9. Vitellius  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        10. Vespasian  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        11. Titus  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        12. Domitian  Latin text | Eng. transl. [TOP]
      10. Tacitus (c. A.D. 55 - 117 or later
        1. History  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        2. Annals  Latin text | Engl. transl.  [TOP]
      11. Dio Cassius (c. A.D. 160 - 230)  Roman History
  2. Roman Law Library – in Latin, with English translations
  3. Non-literary writings
    1. Introduction: Value for biblical studies
    2. Index of Sources for Study of Papyrology
    3. Babatha (The Yadin Papyri)
      1. Intro. to Babatha
      2. Contract for a date crop (Greek text with Eng. transl.)
      3. Deposition regarding orphan's legacy (Greek text with Eng. transl.)
      4. Babatha and the ancient role of women
      5. Marriage Contract for Shelamzion and Judah (Greek text with Eng. transl.)
    4. Extensive collection of non-literary papyri (in Greek or Latin only)
  4. Searchable database of images
  5. New Testament archaeological sites
    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WXYZ

    1. Adramyttium – History | Modern location | Recent archaeology
    2. Alexandria  Bible Atlas from Space | Egyptian report | French report | Coins
    3. Alexandria Troas – see Troas, below.
    4. Amphipolis  culture | history | Coins
    5. Antioch of Pisidia   Bible Atlas from Space | City plan | Paul at Pisidian Antioch | 1924 excavation | Virtual tour | photos | history | Coins
    6. Antioch of Syria (modern Antakya-Hatay, Turkey)  Bible Atlas from Space | history | Recent archaeology | Photos | Photos from Antakya Museum | City plan | Coins
    7. Antipatris (OT Aphek)
    8. Apollonia
    9. Assos  history & description | photosmore photos | Recent archaeology | Assos journals of Francis H. Bacon (includes plan of Assos acropolis) | Coins
    10. Athens
      1. Bible Atlas from Space
      2. history
      3. Acropolis Museum | Parthenon
      4. Agora--Greek
      5. Agora--Roman
      6. Areopagus (Mars Hill)
      7. Stadium  [TOP]
      8. Coins
    11. Attalia – Bible Atlas from Space | Intro. | 2003 Rescue Excavation | Photos | Coins
    12. Azotus (OT Ashdod)
    13. Beroea (modern Veria, Greece)
    14. Bethany (modern El-Azariyeh, Israel) – History | Tomb of Lazarus
    15. Bethlehem (in Judea, see OT arch.) | Church of the Nativity | Photo tour of Church of the Nativity
    16. Bethsaida
    17. Caesarea Maritima  photos | field report of 1997 excavation | Coins
    18. Caesarea Philippi (Caesarea Panias) Intro | Coins
    19. Cana  Archaeology of Cana (near Nazareth) | Aerial view of excavations | Alternate site in Lebanon (near Tyre)
    20. Capernaum – Overview | Synagogue | "St. Peter's house"
    21. Cenchreae
    22. Chorazin
    23. Colossae  Bible Atlas from Space | photos | history | Coins
    24. Corinth  history | Corinth Computer Project | Bible Atlas from Space | Corinth: Results of Excavations Conducted by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens Vol. 20: "Corinth, the Centenary: 1896-1996," ed. C. K. Williams II and N. Bookidis (Athens, 2003). | Coins
    25. Cos
    26. Damascus  History | Photos | Satellite view | Coins
    27. Derbe – Bible Atlas from Space | Intro | Paul at Derbe
    28. Emmaus
    29. Ephesus – Bible Atlas from Space | history | Recent archaeology | Many photos | Coins
    30. Fair HavensCrete in Hellenistic times | Crete in Roman times
    31. Gadara – Intro | Coins
    32. Gaza – History | Photos of current situation | Coins
    33. Gerasa (in Decapolis, OT Jerash)  History | B&W Photos | Gallery of color photos | Coins
    34. Herculaneum  Bible Atlas from Space | Intro | Herculaneum papyri | 360° tour
    35. Herodium
    36. Hierapolis  Bible Atlas from Space | history | Recent archaeology | Photos | Coins
    37. Iconium (modern Konya, Turkey)  history | Coins
    38. Isthmia  U. of Chicago excavation | OSU excavation | Archaeological Museum at Isthmia | Broneer's report on earlier excavation
    39. Jerash (see "Gerasa")
    40. Jericho – History | Photos
    41. First-Century Jerusalem (see OT arch.)
      1. Second Temple panoramas based on 3-D digital model
      2. Time of Christ  Model at Holiland Hotel (Vitrual Tour) |; Garden Tomb | Church of the Holy Sepulcher | Mt. of Olives
      3. Destruction by Titus (A.D. 70) | Arch of Titus
      4. Coins
    42. Joppa – Current excavation
    43. Jordan, Survey of sites in
    44. Kerioth
    45. Laodicea  Bible Atlas from Space | history | Recent archaeology | Coins
    46. Lydda (OT Lod, modern Lod, Israel)
    47. Lystra – Bible Atlas from Space | History
    48. Machaerus
    49. Magdala
    50. Malta (Melita)  History of Malta | Discovery of artifacts from Paul's shipwreck | Discussion of Paul's shipwreck | Coins
    51. Masada | Photo & diagram
    52. Miletus – Bible Atlas from Space | Intro | History & site features | Recent archaeology | Theatre at Miletus | Photos | Coins
    53. Myra – Bible Atlas from Space | Intro | St. Nicholas Church excavation | Photos | Coins
    54. Nain
    55. Nazareth | excavation
    56. Neapolis (in Macedonia) – Intro | Tourist info | Coins
    57. Paphos – Intro | history | Paul in Cyprus | Coins
    58. Patara – Bible Atlas from Space | Intro. | 2004 Excavation | Recent archaeology | Photos | More photos
    59. Patmos Bible Atlas from Space | Tour info.
    60. Pella | Archaeology
    61. Perga – Bible Atlas from Space | Intro. | photos | more photos | Excavation Report | 2006 Report | Recent archaeology | Coins | More coins
    62. Pergamum (Pergamon or Pergamos – modern Bergama, Turkey)– Bible Atlas from Space | Intro. | Recent archaeology | Altar of Zeus (close-ups, text in German) | Tour of site | Photos of site and artifacts | Coins
    63. Petra – Main features | History & archaeology | City plan | Bible Atlas from Space | Coins
    64. Philadelphia (in province of Asia, modern Alasehir, Turkey) – Bible Atlas from Space | Intro | Coins
    65. Philadelphia (in Decapolis, OT Rabbah, modern Amman, capital of Jordan) – Intro | Coins
    66. Philippi – Intro | Bible Atlas from Space | Tour info. | Coins
    67. Pompeii
      1. Bible Atlas from Space
      2. Pompeii supersite
      3. Pompeii Forum Project
      4. Eyewitness account of Pompeii's destruction
      5. Reconstruction of Ancient Pompeii Forum
      6. The Stabian Baths (illus. from Vitruvius, The Ten Books on Architecture, ed. M. H. Morgan (Harvard, 1914).
    68. Ptolemais (OT Acco)
    69. Puteoli
    70. Rhodes – Intro | Coins
    71. Rome
      1. Bible Atlas from Space
      2. Ancient Rome From the Earliest Times Down to 476 B.C. by Robert Pennell (1891) (4.6 Mb)
      3. Virtual Rome (360° images)
      4. Another Virtual Rome
      5. Model of ancient Rome
      6. Forma Urbis Romae (Severan Marble Plan of Rome) (ancient map of Rome carved from 203-211 CE)
      7. Coins
    72. Salamis – Tour of ancient city | Paul in Cyprus | City plan | Location on Cyprus | Coins
    73. Sardis – Bible Atlas from Space | History | Archaeology | Recent archaeology | Sardis synagogue | Synagogue-Gymnasium Complex Photos | Many photos | Coins
    74. Scythopolis (OT Beth Shean) – Intro | Coins
    75. Sea of Galilee  Cove of the Sower | photos
    76. Sebaste (OT Samaria)  History | Coins
    77. Seleucia – Bible Atlas from Space | Intro. | history | Photos | Coins
    78. Sepphoris (OT Zippori)  Official Sepphoris website | Jesus & the Forgotten City (book on Sepphoris) | Coins
    79. Sidon  History with photos | Archaeology of Sidon | Coins
    80. Smyrna (modern Izmir, Turkey)   Bible Atlas from Space | history | Photos | Recent archaeology | Photos of Agora excavation
    81. | Coins
    82. Sychar
    83. Syracuse (Sicily) – Intro | Coins
    84. Tarsus  Bible Atlas from Space | Brief history | In-depth discussion | Recent excavations in city park | Recent excavations at Roman baths | Latest discoveries | 2007 Report | Photos from excavations | Photos | Coins
    85. Thessalonica – Intro. | Archaeological Museum | Coins
    86. Thyatira (modern Akhisar, Turkey)  Bible Atlas from Space | Intro. | Photos | Archaeological Finds | Coins
    87. Tiberias – Intro | Coins
    88. Troas (Alexandria Troas)   History | Photos | Excavations (in German) | Recent archaeology (in English) | Coins
    89. Tyre | Alexander's siege of Tyre (332 BCE) | History of Phoenicia by George Rawlinson (1889) | "Geoarchaeology of Tyre's ancient north harbour" (2005) | Coins
    90.   [TOP]
  6. New Testament Commentaries online
    1. Whole New Testament (Matthew - Revelation)
    2. Four Gospels (Matthew - John)
    3. Book of Acts (Acts of the Apostles)
    4. Pauline Epistles (Romans - Philemon)
    5. General Epistles (Hebrews - Jude)
    6. Book of Revelation (The Apocalypse)
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